The Universe is the greatest origin in this world. The main purpose of the creation of this universe was the recognition of His existence and superiority. We can say that almighty Allah has created th universe fo the benefit of human beings, so that they may recognize His presence, think over the mystery of creation and adore the creator. They should also exploit the natural resources created by him to their own advantage and for the good of other human beings. The vast limitless space, with planets, satellites, asteroids, comets and billions of stars and other heavenly bodies in it is called universe. The space with heavenly bodies that we see with our naked eyes through powerful telescopes is just a tiny part of the universe or a cosmos. It is beyond our comprehension to visualize the vastness of the universe. The latest equipment. however, reveal only a bit of it. The man, since prehistoric days, has been trying to have more and more knowledge about the Earth, on which he lives, as well as about the heavenly bodies which has been observing with great interest. Al though man has explored the Earth, he still sails into the oceans of the endless space, collecting information about the planets and the stars. The more he explores, the more fascinating and strong facts come to light. The science that deals with the origin, evolution composition, distance and movement of all celestial bodies and scattered matter in the universe is known as Astronomy. People who study this science are called Astronomers of cosmologists.
OUR SOLAR SYSTEM:
The solar system comprises the sun and a group of planets which revolve around the sun. our earth is a member of this group of planets. There are many other solar systems in the universe but our information about them is absolutely limited. Our cosmic investigations have provided us with the information that the solar system consists of a star or the sun and nine heavenly bodies or planets.
The sun is the center of the system therefore. the entire system is called the solar system. In fact, sun is a star; hence it has its own light, it is from the family of a galaxy or the milky way. Allah almighty has created the sun from hot liquid and hard matters. its interior part is much hotter than its exterior part. every day thousands of tons of its matter dissipate into the space in the shape of heat and energy, yet there is no reduction in tis energy and power. The distance of sun from the earth is about 149.6 million kilometers. The sunlight reaches us in 8 minutes and 20 seconds while the light from the next nearest reaches the earth at least four and half hours. Through sunlight telescope we can see some black spots in the sun. They called sunspots and they are the shape of big holes. The hot liquid matter and vapors move among them. These spots increase and decrease. The change in the spots affects the seasons and the crops on the earth. The change in the sunspots takes place every 10 to 15 years. Without the existence of the the life of earth would impossible. All the animals, human beings, birds , crops and other living things depend on the light and heat of the sun for their existence.
The moon is natural satellite of the earth. it revolves round the earth at a distance of 384,000 kilometers. Moon’s motion is anti-clockwise, but because the earth rotates in the same direction at a much greater speed, the moon’s apparent daily motion is clockwise. Its moment cause lunar and solar eclipses. The Moon’s axis is inclined 83.5 degree to the plane of its orbit, and as its period of rotation on the axis is identical with its period of revolution, Due to this reasons, nly one side of its surface is always bright, while the other is always dark. The dark and bright sides are not seen in the same ratio. The portion of the bright side seen by us on particular night is called the shape of phase of the moon. The Moon’s diameter is little more than a quarter that of the earth. The moon has about 1/80 of the earth’s mass; an object on its surface weighs about 1/6 of its weight on the earth’s surface. The Volume moon is 1/49 that of the Earth. The lunar days and nights are each about 15 earthly days long. There is neither air nor water. Its surface has a high temperature in the day; and during nigh it becomes very cold. The moon is a world of rock, like our own. Many of craters contain a central mountain, and some are so large that they are generally called ring mountains. One of the largest mountains is baily, which is 296 kilometers in diameter. The walls of the craters may rise 6,100 meters above their floors. As the moon receives its light from the sun, so, when it moves round the earth, only that part of it is visible to earth which gets light from the sun. The moon rotates on its axis in just over 27 days, which is the same as its period of revolution around the earth. Because, the earth has moved on its own orbital plane around the sun, while the moon is revolving around it; the time from one full moon to the next is 29.25 days. It disappears for one or two days in the sky, then it becomes visible on the night of the first date of the lunar month as a crescent. It becomes more and more visible on the sky. On the 14th of the month it become visible as a full moon. But, after this date it becomes smaller and nearly disappears on the 27th and is visible again after 29th or 30th of the lunar month. The reasons for these changes are to bee seen the different location of the moon int he sly relating to the sun.
The planets revolve round the sun in elliptic orbits. Each planet has a different number of satellites or moons which revolve around it in different circles and at different distances. Our earth has only one satellite or moon.
These are Nine Planets Names