For Obtaining comprehensive knowledge about the world, it has been divided into a number of climate regions or the belts. This division has been made on the basis of the distance from the Equator average temperature, rainfall, winds and the poles. The Equator is imaginary line that passes through the center of the Earth horizontally. It falls on the zero degree. The sunrays fall on it in vertical position (i.e. 90o), and due to this reason, the countries situated on, or near the Equator are very hot. The greater quantity of water is evaporated as compared to other places.
This is also a region of high rainfall. The Tropic of caner lies in the north. At 23 from the Equator, and the Tropic of Capricorn at 231/2 such (of equator). These tropics are also imaginary lines. The entire space between the tropic of cancer tropic of Capricorn is called the ‘Hot belt’. This belt is richer in varieties of the plants and animals. Different kinds of flowers also grow in this area. The countries situated in this region are very hot. However, as we go further away from the equator, the intensity of heat in the area decreases.
From 32 1/2 to 66 1/2 N and 23 1/2 to 66 1/2 S, the belt is called (Temperature zone) Mediterranean belt. The courtiers lying in between this belt are temperate neither very cold nor very hot. Most of the region or the belt. But by getting closer to the poles, the intensity of cold gradually increases.
From 66 1/2 north and south, up to the poles, it is called the “Cold belt”. Due to cold this belt is covered with snow. This geographic have divided these belts into six “Climate regions” of the “Natural Regions”.
SOME CLIMATIC REGIONS:
(1) The Equatorial Region:
This is the natural region. It includes areas that lie between the Equator and latitudes 5o South. Malaysia, Amazon Basin, Zaire Basin, Guinea Coast, Singapore, Indonesia and South Eastern coastal region of Africa are the main lands of this region.
The climate of equatorial region remains steaming hot throughout the year. The average temperature for the whole year is 80o F. During the whole year there is often rainfall and the climate as a whole is oppressive. Due to the great heat there is much evaporation. The water surrounding seas is changed into vapors which rise to the upper parts of the atmosphere and are cooled and fall as rain. the process of evaporation starts during the morning and goes on till noon. It rains daily throughout the year in the afternoon. In the Amazon basin, the annual average rainfall is 200 mm. But Congo basin of Africa does not receive heavier rainfall than that of Amazon Basin. Malaysia and Indonesia get copious rains throughout the year.
(2) MONSOON REGION:
The Monsoon Region includes areas that lie between 5o to 30o on both the sides of the Equator and to the east of the continents. It comprises Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Central America, Thailand, Philippines, Cambodia, Mexico, Laos, Venezuela, South China, Vietnam and the northern art of Australia. In South America the eastern coastal areas of Brazil and in Africa, the Easter African countries and island of Madagascar are included.
The Monsoon region during summer the winds blow from sea to land bringing heavy rains. But during winter, winds blow from land to sea. The summer is extremely hot but the winter is a little cool. The rainy season remains between june and September. Areas which get rainfall in winter are Pakistan, India, Philippines and Thailand. In summer months the temperature of some areas reaches up to 110oF. Pakistan gets monsoon from the Arabian Sea.